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Argentina (masculine argentino) means in Italian "(made) of silver, silver coloured", probably borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine "(made) of silver" The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in (same construction as Old French acerin "(made) of steel", from acier "steel" -in or sapin "(made) of fir wood", from OF sap "fir" -in).

The Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver".

With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, and the largest Spanish-speaking nation.

The sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces (Spanish: provincias, singular provincia) and one autonomous city (ciudad autónoma), Buenos Aires, which is the federal capital of the nation (Spanish: Capital Federal) as decided by Congress.

The Spanish navigators Juan Díaz de Solís and Sebastian Cabot visited the territory that is now Argentina in 15, respectively.

The Spanish Empire subordinated the economic potential of the Argentine territory to the immediate wealth of the silver and gold mines in Bolivia and Peru, and as such it became part of the Viceroyalty of Peru until the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776 with Buenos Aires as its capital.

As new president of the Confederation, Urquiza enacted the liberal and federal 1853 Constitution.

The 1820 Battle of Cepeda, fought between the Centralists and the Federalists, resulted in the end of the Supreme Director rule.(Spanish: República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America.Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south.The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics, activists, and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983.Several of the junta's leaders were later convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment.

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