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NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, FLIGHT CONTROL, SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, AUTONOMY, LISP (PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE), JAVA (PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE), ERRORS, APPLICATIONS PROGRAMS (COMPUTERS), PROGRAM VERIFICATION (COMPUTERS), Havelund, Klaus, Lowry, Mike, Park, Seung Joon, Pecheur, Charles, Penix, John, Visser, Willem, White, Jon L., This paper describes two separate efforts that used the SPIN model checker to verify deep space autonomy flight software.
The first effort occurred at the beginning of a spiral development process and found five concurrency errors early in the design cycle that the developers acknowledge would not have been found through testing.
This demonstration included both nominal operations with goal-oriented commanding and closed-loop plan execution, and fault protection capabilities with failure diagnosis and recovery, on-board replanning following unrecoverable failures, and system-level fault protection.
A primary goal of this experiment was to provide an onboard demonstration of spacecraft autonomy.
There are a number of reasons for such an interest.
In order to fulfill such ambitious goals, it is necessary to combine different techniques and methodologies, but in any case the adoption of Artificial Intelligence methodologies seems to be necessary [Doyle 97, Muscettola et al. In fact, tasks as planning, scheduling, diagnosis and reconfiguration al require reasoning capabilities and an explicit representation of the knowledge about the robot, the task and the environment.
The paper demonstrates that formal methods tools can find concurrency errors that indeed lead to loss of spacecraft functions, even for the complex software required for autonomy.
Second, it describes progress in automatic translation and abstraction that eventually will enable formal methods tools to be inserted directly into the aerospace software development cycle.